Category Archives: Politik

Pragmatic Political Practice or National Political Identity

In the article, with the title “Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia”, told about political condition in Indonesia base on political dynamic in term of general election. As a usual, general election in one of tradition when on country would become democratize country. In fact, they are have several problematic either elite political behavior or society. They have many reasons about that condition, such as: dominance of oligarchic elites, patronage politics, predatory elites, money politic, and muscle power, (Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia 2017). That condition can eliminate of national political identities base on the five principle of Pancasila.

Dominance of oligarchic elites, when the power has become in elite politic after election. It is opposite condition when in process of election then self. The political policy best on what elite want. While as long as I know the definition of republic is rest is mean interest and public is mean people. So when someone has become a leader should listen what the people want.  According to Plato, in The Republic, describes the contrast between the ideal and inferior states in terms of an imagined ‘decay’ or ‘destruction’, using the word pthora (546a), the Greek term later regularly Latinised as corruptio. The ideal state undergoes a number of stages of such decay, through timocracy, oligarchy and democracy, culminating in tyranny, which is the worst regime of all, (Gmbh 2010). Abuse of power is very opten when some people doesn’t have constitutional control from law.

Money politic in D-day of general election mostly haven. That is the main couse of pure score from international for transparency in Indonesia. The persistence of corruption is also reflected on the views of Indonesians’ citizens on corruption. According to the Global Corruption Barometer (Transparency International, 2011), 43% of the households surveyed believe that corruption has increased in the three years preceding the survey. The view on the effectiveness of the government’s efforts to fight corruption is divided. 33% assessed it as effective and 35% as ineffective (Martini 2012). Two concepts in the political campaign when the political elite using the money. Fist, cost politic, the political candidate sped the money to: rent the cars, buy some political images, transportation of political team. This condition I normal and related with political norms. Second, money politic is the political candidate buy the people who chosen that candidate. That’s the main of cause of corruption in political elite in Indonesia.

To sum up, Indonesia already have political principle is the leader value in political system in Indonesia. That the basic principles is need to implementation is several dimensions, they are: in basic constitution, political behavior either elite or society, good implementation of national constitution, high political education. For that reasons hopefully can reduce political deviation in Indonesia.



Garrido, Luis. 2013. “Elites, Political Elites and Social Change in Modern Societies.” Revista de Sociología 28: 31–49.

Gmbh, Toyota Motorsport. 2010. Expanding the Focus.

Martini, Maira. 2012. “Causes of Corruption in Indonesia.” U4 Expert Answers, no. August 2012.

Social , Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia. 2017. Citizenship and Democratization in Southeast Asia.


The Legitimacy of the Governed

The legitimacy in the modern state is clearly and firmly grounded in a concept of popular sovereignty. Sovereignty is most popular rather than democracy itself.  Democratic or undemocratic government, both of them claim legitimacy from the will of the people. This is the example of what the political will from the people in the revolutionary in France in 1797 have tree principal value there are: liberte, equalite, and fraternite. More similar value with the leaders of the Haitian revolution got the message of liberty and equality to the end of slavery and declared the independence from the colonial rule.

The universal dimension is represented. First, by the idea of the people as the original locus of sovereignty in the modern state, and second, by the idea of all humans as bearers of right. Freedom and equality is the basic rights in modern state. According to Etienne Balibar has describe of property and community. Property sought to resolve the contradiction between freedom and equality at the level of the individual in relation to other individuals. Community was where to contradiction were the contradictions were sought to be resolved at the level of whole fraternity.

In other opinion of the legacy of group rights established at the nation’s founding is documented in its historical context by examining the social and legal doctrines that developed through-out the 20th century. This legacy is the primary obstacle to full recognition of the rights of individuals today. Significant developments in constitutional doctrine can be traced to meaningful attempts to transform what should have rightfully begun as a contractual or employment relationship, rather than a property right at the nation’s founding, into a contractual or labor relation among equals. This  table got the information the lack of theory and practice:

Theory Practice
Bureaucracy Impersonal official procedure trum personal obligation Personal and informal personal obligations trump official procedures
Bureaucrats Implement laws and regulations Use laws and regulations as rent-seeking device
Law and policies Implemented and predictable Negotiated and unpredictable
Access to services Base on individual right Shaped by connections to social and political networks
accountability programmatic Clientelistic

According to the data in the table and description property and freedom. To reduce of the lack theory and practice, have several reasons either culture and administration. The firs is about culture, this is not the only about contradiction argument both of republican and libertarian but also is about how strong every government employment have strong integrity to conduct the constitution to protect the people right, which is work, education, and health. The second is about administration, how to minimize the pragmatic behavior by the steps of procedure to given the domino effects both of people and government.

Undemocratic government is really need how to implementation good governance. Meanwhile that concept of government including to definition and practice the clean government and good government. Clean government is limited number of corruption and transparency in the state employed, and good government is policy from government is accountable for the people.



Ward Berenschot. 2017. Current issues on the citizenship in Indonesia. Modul.

Partha Schartterjee. The politics of the governed. New York. Columbia University Press.

Robin D. Barnes. 2008. The Nature and Scope of Individual Rights. Carolina Academic Press